Biofilms contribute to the pathogenesis of many forms of Staphylococcus aureus infection. Treatment of these infections is complicated by intrinsic resistance to conventional antibiotics, thus creating an urgent need for strategies that can be used for the prevention and treatment of biofilm-associated infections. This study demonstrates that a botanical natural product composition D-F2 rich in ellagic acid and its derivatives can limit S.

The source of this composition is Rubus ulmifolius Schott. Rosaceaea plant used in complementary and alternative medicine in southern Italy for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections. All S. This limitation was therapeutically relevant in that inclusion of D-F2 resulted in enhanced susceptibility to the functionally-distinct antibiotics daptomycin, clindamycin and oxacillin. Testing with kidney and liver cell lines also demonstrated a lack of host cell cytotoxicity at concentrations of D-F2 required to achieve these effects.

These results demonstrate that extract D-F2 from the root of Rubus ulmifolius can be used to inhibit S. Hence, D-F2 is a strong candidate for development as a botanical drug for use in the prevention and treatment of S. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

The funding agencies had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. This has no influence on the content of this article and does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLoS ONE policies on sharing data and materials. Staphylococcus aureus is arguably the most problematic of all bacterial pathogens owing in large part to the persistent emergence of antibiotic resistant strains.

This is evident in the recent appearance of methicillin-resistant strains even among isolates causing community-acquired infections [1][2][3].

While this has created an urgent need for new antimicrobial agents, many S. A primary contributing factor to this recalcitrance is the formation of a biofilm.

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The presence of a foreign body decreases the minimal infecting dose of S. The paradigm of biofilm resistance presents a major hurdle for the treatment of many types of infectious disease, including dental caries, mastitis, otitis media, endocarditis, chronic wounds, and osteomyelitis [5].

The economic burden of these infections is tremendous with biofilm-associated infections lead to longer hospital stays, recurrent infection, and increased fatalities in the most recalcitrant cases. In total, up to 17 million new biofilm infections occur each year in the US, resulting in up tofatalities annually [9][10].

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These statistics emphasize the fact that, while there is indeed a pressing need for new antibiotics, there is an equally urgent need to develop agents that could be used to limit biofilm formation to a therapeutically relevant degree.

Such agents could be used to prevent colonization or as adjunct therapy to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of conventional antibiotics [10][11]. Taking an ethnobotanical approach to drug discovery [12] offers considerable promise in many clinical contexts including infectious disease.

Indeed, studies on botanical complementary and alternative CAM therapies have led to the discovery of novel ant-virulence agents. For instance, proanthocyanidins from Vaccinium macrocarpon cranberry disrupt adhesion of P-fimbriated E.

Garlic extract Allium sativum attenuates virulence by inhibiting hyphae formation in Candida albicans [16] and by blocking quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa [17][18][19]. Natural products offer a distinct advantage over their synthetic counterparts due to their rich structural diversity, chirality, and extensive functional group chemistry [24].

Thus, plants are a likely source of the next generation of anti-infectives [30]. Rubus ulmifolius Schott.

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A limited number of published studies that have examined the antibacterial properties of R. For example, Flamini et al.

Anti-Acne Activity of Italian Medicinal Plants Used for Skin Infection

Panizzi et al. The importance of R. In particular, the fresh leaves are topically applied with pork fat in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections SSTI and a decoction of the roots is used as a wash to prevent hair loss. In a screening study that followed this fieldwork, ethanolic extracts from Italian plants were assessed for their anti-biofilm potential and extracts from R.To date, several primary or secondary plant metabolites have been already proven to exert antibiotic activities; nonetheless, researchers are still continuing to lavish great efforts to identify and characterize new natural molecules one by one.

Aiming at the replacement of synthetic chemical products, the bioactivity of plant extracts should be assessed case by case, and active substances should be tested as individuals to obtain accurate information on the real usefulness of plant metabolites. In this work major glycoalkaloids obtained from Solanum nigrumglucosinolates from Armoracia rusticana, and cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa were identified.

From antimicrobial assays useful information towards a few of biological activities of crude extracts and individual components were obtained. Solanum nigrum extracts revealed inhibition activity on all bacteria tested as well as the main active glycoalkaloids, solamargine and solasonine, which were found to be active even when tested individually. At assayed concentrations, A.

Hemp-type C. Promising results were obtained, but tests performed in vitro are only the first step of a wider investigation as required for an extensive application.

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Further research efforts are necessary to demonstrate the efficiency of natural substances in different target environments. The necessity of using drugs and pesticides in high quantity linked also to the population growth has required large amounts of products, which only laboratory synthesis could realize.

In this process, however, some negative aspects attributable to a large use of synthetic substances were not considered, such as the organic balance alteration, pollution of various environmental systems, resistance induction, and genetic changes in living beings in a very short period.

Due to the scientific awareness surrounding the use of natural substances instead of synthetic ones, in recent years many researchers have undertaken studies on the occurrence of secondary metabolites in plants that are widely used in almost all geographical areas and on their possible bioactivity. Secondary metabolites are organic molecules, not involved in the normal growth and development of an organism, whose functions are largely unknown, although they seem involved in the organism defence [ 56 ].

The recognition of the biological properties of thousands of these molecules has increased interest in this field for new drugs, antibiotics, insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides research and brought about a re-evaluation of bacteria, fungi, and plant role, especially in the ecological context. Terpenes gums, resins, carotenoids, etc. Each family, genus, and species of several plants produce a characteristic mixture of substances that can be present in active form or in prodrug state and are used for taxonomic classification [ 7 ].

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Normally, they are activated when wounding or infection in the vegetal body occurs [ 8 ]. These compounds can be active as single components or strengthen their activity due to synergistic action with other chemical compounds co-synthesized in the plant cells [ 9 ]. This work deals with the identification of more representative glycoalkaloids and glucosinolates in crude extracts obtained from Solanum nigrum and Armoracia rusticanarespectively, and of several cannabinoids extracted from Cannabis sativa.

Methanol, acetonitrile, and formic acid were obtained from Carlo Erba Milan, Italy. Solutions prepared as above were used for analytical purposes.

For antimicrobial assays, solutions of standard compounds were prepared when necessary before each test using sterilized ultrapure water, which was also employed to dilute them up to the required concentration.As a weed dispensary in Los Angeles, Herbarium has been growing a network of suppliers and customers since legalization ineven before. The result is an extensive weed shop online; one that caters to your every flavor, flight, or fancy.

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Same-day delivery is very popular, and you can track your orders as they travel to you. Our app is useful, but you can get notifications via text for departure times, arrival alerts, and other vital information about your package and its route to you.The paper refers to the knowledge and uses of plants and to the linked ritual practices as referred by Matteo It. After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through an open interview about the uses of the plants and on the associated ritual practices.

For each species, data were collected that included the vernacular names, preparation, plant parts utilized and their method of use. The uses of 52 taxa are described. Among these, 43 are or were employed medicinally, eight as culinary foodstuffs, and 4 for domestic, handicraft or ethnoveterinary uses.

Among the major findings: the ritual and magical use of Tamarix gallica L. Phytotherapy in the Basilicata region is practiced by elderly people who resort to medicinal plants for mild illnesses; we interviewed one of those traditional healers who is very experienced in the field, and possesses rich ethno-pharmacological knowledge.

Traditional Healing TH is the oldest form of structured medicine, and was originally an integral part of semi-nomadic and agricultural tribal societies; although archaeological evidence for its existence dates back to only around B.

There were and still are differences between the principles and philosophy of TH, although there are also many fundamental similarities that arise from the profound knowledge of natural laws, and the understanding of how these influence living things, that are shared by all Traditional Healers THs.

THs are found in most societies and are often part of a local community, culture and tradition, and they continue to have high social standing in many places, exerting influence on local health practices.

In the Basilicata region Figure 1 once known as Lucaniaas is generally true throughout southern Italy, the traditional magic healing is a belief that fascinates and intrigues, and has always held a position of considerable importance in the daily events of life.

The respect and awe they inspire find their external manifestation in the titles of deference, friendship, and sometimes empathy given them e. Nowadays these THs are disappearing, especially in industrialized countries, because their knowledge ends with their death.

Because of the trend of migration out of the countryside and away from agricultural activities, today only vestiges of this knowledge survive, and that only amongst farmers, shepherds and elderly people. In this region some ethnobotanical studies have been conducted over the last 30 years [ 2 — 21 ], almost all of them based mainly on interviews with farmers, shepherds and housewives who are either native to the area or have been living there since childhood, most of them over 60 years old; but few have been carried out with healers sensu strictu.

It is apparent that knowledge of traditional natural remedies for healing human diseases is disappearing in Lucania: modern pharmaceuticals have replaced many natural remedies, and no real healers remain in most areas of the region. He is a native of Carbone, a small town in the inland areas of Basilicata, and after the land reform of the 60s -which led to the reclamation of coastal wetlands, allowing the development of intensive agriculture on this land- he moved with his family to Policoro MT Figure 1where he worked as a farmer and where he still lives.

At this time he is considered to be one of the most respectable and popular healer in the area. On an anthropological level, the Basilicata area is known for having been described in the late s by the Italian anthropologist Ernesto de Martino, who lived in the region during the spring of [ 2223 ].

In our study, after obtaining prior informed consent, and using standard methods [ 2425 ], we collected data about the uses of the plants and the linked ritual practices.

For each species, data were collected including plant parts utilized, their preparation, and their method of use. Women have generally retained the most information concerning traditional domestic remedies, and therefore the interviewees were more heavily female: seven women and three men, with average age of Information was gathered through observation either of the present use of traditional plant pharmaceuticals, or of uses that are at least still alive in the collective memory of the oldest segment of the population.If further then 10 miles use our partner.

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Notes about the uses of plants by one of the last healers in the Basilicata Region (South Italy)

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They are fearless. They will get your weed to you on time, every time, no matter the apocalypse this time, and always within the framework of the law. No need for worry.Metrics details. The paper refers to the knowledge and uses of plants and to the linked ritual practices as referred by Matteo It.

After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through an open interview about the uses of the plants and on the associated ritual practices. For each species, data were collected that included the vernacular names, preparation, plant parts utilized and their method of use.

Alexandra Boeminghaus - Plant collection for the Herbarium

The uses of 52 taxa are described. Among these, 43 are or were employed medicinally, eight as culinary foodstuffs, and 4 for domestic, handicraft or ethnoveterinary uses. Among the major findings: the ritual and magical use of Tamarix gallica L. Phytotherapy in the Basilicata region is practiced by elderly people who resort to medicinal plants for mild illnesses; we interviewed one of those traditional healers who is very experienced in the field, and possesses rich ethno-pharmacological knowledge.

Traditional Healing TH is the oldest form of structured medicine, and was originally an integral part of semi-nomadic and agricultural tribal societies; although archaeological evidence for its existence dates back to only around B. There were and still are differences between the principles and philosophy of TH, although there are also many fundamental similarities that arise from the profound knowledge of natural laws, and the understanding of how these influence living things, that are shared by all Traditional Healers THs.

THs are found in most societies and are often part of a local community, culture and tradition, and they continue to have high social standing in many places, exerting influence on local health practices.

In the Basilicata region Figure 1 once known as Lucaniaas is generally true throughout southern Italy, the traditional magic healing is a belief that fascinates and intrigues, and has always held a position of considerable importance in the daily events of life. The respect and awe they inspire find their external manifestation in the titles of deference, friendship, and sometimes empathy given them e. Nowadays these THs are disappearing, especially in industrialized countries, because their knowledge ends with their death.

Because of the trend of migration out of the countryside and away from agricultural activities, today only vestiges of this knowledge survive, and that only amongst farmers, shepherds and elderly people. In this region some ethnobotanical studies have been conducted over the last 30 years [ 2 — 21 ], almost all of them based mainly on interviews with farmers, shepherds and housewives who are either native to the area or have been living there since childhood, most of them over 60 years old; but few have been carried out with healers sensu strictu.

It is apparent that knowledge of traditional natural remedies for healing human diseases is disappearing in Lucania: modern pharmaceuticals have replaced many natural remedies, and no real healers remain in most areas of the region.

He is a native of Carbone, a small town in the inland areas of Basilicata, and after the land reform of the 60s -which led to the reclamation of coastal wetlands, allowing the development of intensive agriculture on this land- he moved with his family to Policoro MT Figure 1where he worked as a farmer and where he still lives. At this time he is considered to be one of the most respectable and popular healer in the area. On an anthropological level, the Basilicata area is known for having been described in the late s by the Italian anthropologist Ernesto de Martino, who lived in the region during the spring of [ 2223 ].

In our study, after obtaining prior informed consent, and using standard methods [ 2425 ], we collected data about the uses of the plants and the linked ritual practices. For each species, data were collected including plant parts utilized, their preparation, and their method of use. Women have generally retained the most information concerning traditional domestic remedies, and therefore the interviewees were more heavily female: seven women and three men, with average age of Information was gathered through observation either of the present use of traditional plant pharmaceuticals, or of uses that are at least still alive in the collective memory of the oldest segment of the population.

During the interviews, several fresh plant specimens or dried samples, stocked in a small transportable field herbarium, were shown to the interviewees.

Each non-cultivated botanical species recognized by the study participants as having been used for medicinal purposes was collected and identified by the authors; the voucher material will be sent to the Herbarium Lucanum HLUC in Potenza, Italy.

The transcription of vernacular names of the recorded traditional remedies of the local folk pharmacopoeia follow the rules of the Italian language, and non-domesticated medicinal plants were identified following the Italian botanical standard treatise [ 26 ], whereas cultivated plants were identified using Hammer et al [ 27 ]. All the scientific names of the plants were confirmed through Tropicos database [ 28 ]. They represent the traditional heritage of the ethnopharmacopoeia of this part of the region.

The uses of 52 plants belonging to 30 families are reported: two taxa are employed in domestic and handicraft uses, two for ethnoveterinary, eight for food and 40 for medicinal uses Table 1. The most highly represented families are Lamiaceae 6 speciesAsteraceae 5 speciesPoaceae 4 species and Rutaceae 3 species.

Plants are listed according to alphabetical order of their botanical names. Seventy-nine remedies of plant origin belonging to 52 botanical taxa were recorded.

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The parts of the plants most used for medicinal purposes in decreasing order are leaves and aerial parts, fruits, seeds, young stems, bulbs and sap, flower heads, membrane, pods, rhizome and roots, shoots and stems, and young buds. Decoction, almost always in water, is the main method of preparation for oral administration, while direct application of the plants is the most important method for topical use. As for the food uses, the collection of wild edible plants took place during work in the fields.

Occasionally the plants were eaten raw as a snack by the workers, or were brought home and cooked in a traditional terracotta pot. Today only a few wild edibles are consumed in their raw form; instead, they are commonly prepared by light boiling, or frying in olive oil, with garlic, salt, and sometimes a few hot chili peppers, and usually eaten with bread.Novel therapies are in high demand and an ethnopharmacological approach to discovering new plant sources of anti-acne therapeutics could contribute to filling this void in effective therapies.

The aims of our study were two-fold: 1 To determine if species identified in ethnopharmacological field studies as having traditional uses for skin and soft tissue infection SSTI exhibit significantly more activity against P.

Extracts of Italian medicinal for acne and other skin infection and randomly collected plants and fungi were screened for growth-inhibitory and anti-biofilm activity in P. HPLC analysis with chemical standards revealed many of these extracts contained chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, ellagic acid, gallic acid, and tannic acid. The anti-acne activity of three extracts is reported for the first time: Vitis vinifera leaves, Asphodelus microcarpus leaves, and Vicia sativa aerial parts.

While it is not a lethal or debilitating disorder, it can be painful and disfiguring, causing significant physiological distress, and heavy economic burden. Acne is associated with increases in anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation Dunn et al.

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However, these therapies are not cures, but rather ways of managing this follicular disorder. Current treatments fall into either two categories: topical or oral. Common topical treatments include benzoyl peroxide, retinoids, and antibiotics i.

Antibiotics have been used for over 50 years to treat acne and today one course of topical or systemic treatment typically lasts 3—6 months Walsh et al. Antibiotics are thought to inhibit inflammation indicative of acne when used topically and systemically, as well as target P.

Like many other bacteria, P. Pathogenesis targets, such as quorum sensing and biofilms, are organism specific and could limit resistance development LaSarre and Federle, Biofilms contribute to the recalcitrant nature of acne by presenting a physical barrier to which few molecules are capable of penetrating, allowing the bacteria within to persist and cause infection Donlan, ; Vlassova et al.

Biofilms have been implicated in implant-related and chronic infections Donlan, ; Aubin et al. The high incidence of antibiotic resistance seen in P. Only a few studies have evaluated potential P. Medicinal plants, in particular, may present a unique source of new therapeutic options. Many studies have been dedicated to documentation of traditional uses of medicinal plants for managing dermatological conditions, and these may represent a strong starting point for drug discovery research on this topic Pieroni et al.

An ethnobotanical approach for drug discovery uses traditional medicine, historical texts or traditional healers, as a guide toward potentially medicinal plant species.

A number of studies addressing different biological targets have demonstrated that an ethnobotanical approach to identifying bioactive compounds in plants is more efficacious than a random search. More than 15 years ago, Slish et al.


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